Gum disease is an infection of the tissues and bones that surround and support the teeth. It is also called periodontal disease.
The two stages of gum disease are called gingivitis and periodontitis.
Gingivitis (say “jin-juh-VY-tus”) is mild gum disease that affects only the gums, the tissue that surrounds the teeth.
Gingivitis causes red, swollen gums that bleed easily when the teeth are brushed. Because gingivitis usually doesn’t cause pain, many people don’t get the treatment they need.
Periodontitis (say “pair-ee-oh-don-TY-tus”) is gum disease that gets worse and spreads below the gums to damage the tissues and bone that support the teeth.
Periodontitis develops if gum disease gets worse. The gums pull away from the teeth, leaving deep pockets where germs called bacteria can grow and damage the bone that supports the teeth. Gums can also shrink back from the teeth. This can make the teeth look longer. Teeth may become loose, fall out, or have to be pulled out by a dentist.